A NEW APPROACH IN THE CONSTRUCTION OF WINTER GREENHOUSES

Kiyanovsky Alexander

Дата публикации: 09.01.2016

Опубликовано пользователем: Кияновский Александр Викторович

Рубрика ГРНТИ: 68.00.00 Сельское и лесное хозяйство

УДК: 631.544.4

Библиографическая ссылка:
Kiyanovsky A. A new approach in the construction of winter greenhouses // Портал научно-практических публикаций [Электронный ресурс]. URL: http://portalnp.ru/2016/01/3121 (дата обращения: 04.10.2017)

Kiyanovsky Alexander
Specialist greenhouses

Abstract
The main direction of development of greenhouse agriculture is aimed at something that would minimize the costs of creating a climate for vegetation processes. However, there are two levels of development : the first is the creation of new materials with high light transmission capacity , while having low heat losses . Second – is the application of technologies to maximize efficient use of internal energy in the greenhouse and store solar insolation


ALL SEASON GREENHOUSE

Greenhouse – is the habitat of plants, dimensions, types of construction material for the manufacture can be very different. The main purpose of the greenhouse – the establishment and maintenance of the microclimate for “green tenants.” Due to this the opportunity to grow the desired plants throughout the year. And get a good crop.

On this and many other – further

Winter greenhouse. Constructive decisions

Today the market offers a huge range of design solutions for greenhouses. This allows you to choose the most convenient for you type, both in size and configuration, as well as material.

The main condition for winter greenhouses – a low power consumption in the winter months and high light transmission.

Winter greenhouse quite significantly different from its summer sister. Despite the fact that both of these functional variant aimed at maintaining microclimatic conditions for crops.

Winter greenhouses can be ordered as a ready-made, with the assembly, yet ready for self-assembly. You can, in principle, make the most of the available materials.

The main characteristics of winter greenhouses

In choosing the material, design and installation should consider some basic factors:

light transmission;
efficiency of energy consumption.
With the goal of creating the maximum translucent combined with minimization of heat adequately handle cellular material. Number one in the market of synthetic covering material for greenhouses.

.

Coefficient of thermal conductivity of synthetic materials for covering greenhouses, depending on the thickness of the sheet:

multi-chamber honeycomb (cellular) polycarbonate Well-shaped structure walls

the thickness of 10-16 mm

coefficient of thermal conductivity of 2.6 -2.1 W / m2 * s

dual-chamber honeycomb (cellular) polycarbonate 10.16 mm

coefficient of thermal conductivity of 2.9 -2.3 W / m2 * s

chetryhkamerny cellular (cellular) polycarbonate 20 mm

Coefficient of thermal conductivity 1,9vt / m2 * s

8-10 mm twin-wall polycarbonate

coefficient of thermal conductivity of 3.5 -3,2vt / m2 * s

Proceeding from these considerations, it is obvious that the number of cameras and the thickness of the sheet material directly affects the ability to retain heat. The maximum effective heat-saving function is able to perform a polycarbonate sheet thickness of 20 mm. But do not forget that we are looking for a middle ground between light transmission capacity and energy efficiency. A sheet of 20 mm is able to skip to only 60 percent of the sunlight.

Translucent synthetic material for covering greenhouses, depending on the thickness of the sheet as a percentage:

polycarbonate multichamber 10 mm – up to 78%;
Polycarbonate 8 mm – up to 84%;
Polycarbonate 20 mm – 60%.
Light losses up to 40% is not permissible for the greenhouses in general, and especially for the winter of its execution. Such light losses will lead to the need for a permanent supplementary lighting.

The optimal balance between energy saving and sveprozrachnostyu quality is achieved by using multi-chamber polycarbonate sheet of 10 mm to 16 mm.

Winter greenhouse – insulated or not?

Of course, we insulate. Without the proper level of tightness of all joints, and sealing doors, windows, hatches an integral part of energy-saving features increase the greenhouse. No matter how good was the coating material, it will not be able to keep warm if the “vacuum will whip” in the slot. In other words, heat is moved from the greenhouse, and replaced with cold air mass coming from the environment.

There are several commonly used options for the design of winter greenhouses:

gable;
Shed;
arched;
Gable greenhouse. The design for the winter

The classic solution for winter greenhouses is a gable greenhouse. It taxing or to the carcass material (which can be wood, metal, plastic). Not-to-cover (glass, film, polycarbonate cellular and cast). About 60% of all greenhouse facilities make it a winter-type dual options. Subject to the optimum angle of inclination of the roof (from 20 to 30 degrees), precipitation (snow and rain) will not accumulate on the roof, and this greenhouse will serve for many years and the amount of absorbed light is working towards a satisfactory amount.

The disadvantages include a large gable greenhouse costly part (not economical to use the coating material).

Pent greenhouse. The design for the winter

Becoming popular in recent years and lean-design, with additional improvements it can reduce heat loss up to 40%.

Additional improvements are the following lines:

Orientation compass (roof slope oriented to the south, straight wall to the north).
Covering the northern wall of reflective material (reflective surface inside).
Thus, the light coming from the south side, is reflected from the hollow of the northern wall. This provides additional light stream directed to crops grown in the greenhouse. This so-called technology teplitsy- vegitariya, one of the most energy efficient designs.

Arched greenhouse. Winter version

Most popular in second place after the bi are teplitsy- “arch”. Thanks to synthetic, capable to bend the arch, such greenhouses gradually winning all the big market share. And this is no accident. Arched structures have significant advantages:

Bent under the arch of the coating material in addition to its standard functions perform tasks supporting framework of the greenhouse.
Coverage arch less than other greenhouses (this saves on material and the energy losses).
The arched design provides a much smaller number of connections that need sealing, it also tends to reduce heat loss.
Arch of their design makes it possible to absorb the maximum amount of natural sunlight during the daylight hours.
As coating “arc” is generally used, and polycarbonate film, most cell. The film is not the best choice of the coating material for winter greenhouse, usually used polycarbonate. The material for use has limitations. For example, the greenhouse, which has a width of three meters, can be covered with a sheet thickness of up to 8 mm inclusive. If you want to cover the greenhouse sheet of 10 mm, the width should be at least three and a half meters. This is due to the angle of curvature which allows a certain thickness polycarbonate sheet.

The disadvantage of “arch” can be considered the complexity and inconvenience of installation of ventilation holes (vents). Disadvantages in arched greenhouses is to install air vents. Additional efforts are required when sealing.

Modern synthetic materials for covering greenhouses, high-quality frame materials allow to design and build a greenhouse for any individual requests.

Of course, the ideal hothouse – is a non-volatile complex, which will grow all the most exotic plants, as expanses of Siberia, and in the African soil. Modern greenhouses development efforts aimed at precisely that, and someday these greenhouses will become a reality.


© Если вы обнаружили нарушение авторских или смежных прав, пожалуйста, незамедлительно сообщите нам об этом по электронной почте или через форму обратной связи.

Связь с автором публикации (комментарии/рецензии к публикации)

Оставить комментарий

Вы должны авторизоваться, чтобы оставить комментарий.